Saturday, 28 April 2012

Postural activity and motion sickness during video game play in children and adults


Volume 217, Number 2 (2012), 299-309,
Chih-Hui Chang, Wu-Wen Pan, Li-Ya Tseng and Thomas A. Stoffregen

+/- Click for more/less

Abstract Research has confirmed that console video games give rise to motion sickness in many adults. During exposure to console video games, there are differences in postural activity (movement of the head and torso) between participants who later experience motion sickness and those who do not, confirming a prediction of the postural instability theory of motion sickness. Previous research has not addressed relations between video games, movement and motion sickness in children. We evaluated the nauseogenic properties of a commercially available console video game in both adults and 10-year-old children. Individuals played the game for up to 50 min and were instructed to discontinue immediately if they experienced any symptoms of motion sickness, however mild. During game play, we monitored movement of the head and torso. Motion sickness was reported by 67% of adults and by 56% of children; these rates did not differ. As a group, children moved more than adults. Across age groups, the positional variability of the head and torso increased over time during game play. In addition, we found differences in movement between participants who later reported motion sickness and those who did not. Some of these differences were general across age groups but we also found significant differences between the movement of adults and children who later reported motion sickness. The results confirm that console video games can induce motion sickness in children and demonstrate that changes in postural activity precede the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness in children.

Click for more info

Friday, 27 April 2012

Determining intensity levels for selected Wii Fit activities in college aged individuals.

By Joshua D. Grieser
Master of Science in Exercise and Sports Studies thesis
May 2010

+/- Click for more/less

Introduction: Physical activity is important to the proper growth, development, and overall health of an individual. Current physical activity trends show declines in activity level throughout aging. To counteract inactivity many physical activity interventions have been implemented in different age groups and yet very little change in activity level has been seen. The Nintendo Wii® offers a popular technological intervention tool with its movement oriented game play. The physiological costs and intensity of the Nintendo Wii Fit® game have not been thoroughly researched, yet the Wii is being used as a physical activity tool in many arenas.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity level of playing selected Nintendo Wii Fit® games using indirect calorimetry. Using the intensity information, it was determined if playing Wii Fit® (an exercise themed game) on the Nintendo Wii® video game console is an adequate activity for meeting the ACSM moderate physical activity guidelines threshold. Participants: Twenty-five participants, 5 males and 20 females, aged 22 ± 2 years (M ± SD) with little previous Wii experience were recruited for this study.

Method: Participants randomly completed two different Wii Fit activity sessions with two difficulty levels within the strength, endurance, and yoga categories. A resting metabolic rate and exercise VO2were measured on each participant with a TrueMax 2400 metabolic cart. Oxygen consumption was then converted into metabolic equivalents to estimate activity intensity level. SPSS18.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) was use for statistical analysis.

Results: Results indicated that VO2 of the selected Wii Fit activities was significantly higher than resting 2 VO levels. For example, the least intense activity was the Yoga Warrior activity, which had a mean intensity of 2.30 ± 0.42 METs and was still significantly higher than resting 2 VO levels, t (24) = 15.5, p < .001. The calculated MET values ranged from 3.28 ± 0.71 METs to 3.43 ± 0.60 METs for the strength activities, and ranged from 4.98 ± 1.22 METs to 5.73 ± 1.36 METs for the aerobic Basic Run exercises, indicating that the intensity levels of these activities met or exceeded the ACSM moderate intensity threshold of 3 METs. In contrast, the yoga exercises were significantly lower (from 2.30 ± 0.42 METs to 2.6749 ± .48 METs) than the recommended 3 METs, t (24) = -3.347, p= .003 for moderate intensity physical activity. Finally, the results showed that the medium difficulty level aerobic exercises (5.73 ± 1.36 METs) had significantly higher MET values than the easy aerobic exercises (4.98 ± 1.22 METs), t (24) = 5.00, p < .001.

Discussion: The findings of this study illustrate the potential of the Nintendo Wii Fit® game to be an adequate physical activity tool. Furthermore, these findings will allow for the further advancement of exercise themed video games to become satisfactory replacements for traditional physical activities in future interventions.

Click here for more

Wednesday, 25 April 2012

Interactive virtual reality Wii in geriatric day hospital: A study to assess its feasibility, acceptability and efficacy.

Geriatrics & Gerontology International
2012 Apr 2

Chan TC, Chan F, Shea YF, Lin OY, Luk JK, Chan FH. Source Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Department of Medicine and Geriatrics, Fung Yiu King Hospital, Hong Kong, China

+/- Click for more/less

Aim:  Rehabilitation using interactive virtual reality Wii (Wii-IVR) was shown to be feasible in patients with different medical problems, but there was no study examining its use in a geriatric day hospital (GDH). The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of Wii-IVR in GDH.

Methods:  It was a clinical trial with matched historic controls. Patients of a GDH were recruited to participate in Wii-IVR by playing "Wii Fit". Participants used a Wii controller to carry out movements involved in an arm ergometer. Each participant received eight sessions of Wii-IVR in addition to conventional GDH rehabilitation. Feasibility was assessed by the total time receiving Wii-IVR, the percentage of maximal heart rate reserve (%MHR) and Borg perceived exertion scale (BS) after participating in Wii-IVR. %MHR and BS were compared with those after carrying out an arm ergometer for the same duration. Acceptability was assessed by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Efficacy was assessed by comparing improvements in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) between participants and matched historic controls, who received conventional GDH rehabilitations only.

Results:  A total of 30 patients completed the study. Participants completed a total of 1941 min of event-free Wii-IVR. The mean %MHR was 15.9% ± 9.9% and the mean BS was 7.9 ± 2.3. There was no significant difference in %MHR and BS between participating in Wii-IVR and arm ergometer. Most participants found Wii-IVR similar to the arm ergometer, and would like to continue Wii-IVR if they had Wii at home. Improvements in FIM of participants were significantly more than that of historic controls.

Conclusions:  Wii-IVR in GDH was feasible and most participants accepted it. Participants had more improvements in FIM.

Thursday, 5 April 2012

Comparison Between Nintendo Wii Fit Aerobics and Traditional Aerobic Exercise in Sedentary Young Adults

Douris, PC, McDonald, B, Vespi, F, Kelley, NC, and Herman, L.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
26(4): 1052–1057, 2012

+/- Click for more/less


Exergaming is becoming a popular recreational activity for young adults. The purpose was to compare the physiologic and psychological responses of college students playing Nintendo Wii Fit, an active video game console, vs. an equal duration of moderate-intensity brisk walking. Twenty-one healthy sedentary college-age students (mean age 23.2 ± 1.8 years) participated in a randomized, double cross-over study, which compared physiologic and psychological responses to 30 minutes of brisk walking exercise on a treadmill vs. 30 minutes playing Nintendo Wii Fit “Free Run” program. Physiologic parameters measured included heart rate, rate pressure product, respiratory rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Participants' positive well-being, psychological distress, and level of fatigue associated with each exercise modality were quantified using the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale. The mean maximum heart rate (HRmax) achieved when exercising with Wii Fit (142.4 ± 20.5 b·min−1) was significantly greater (p = 0.001) compared with exercising on the treadmill (123.2 ± 13.7 b·min−1). Rate pressure product was also significantly greater (p = 0.001) during exercise on the Wii Fit. Participants' rating of perceived exertion when playing Wii Fit (12.7 ± 3.0) was significantly greater (p = 0.014) when compared with brisk walking on the treadmill (10.1 ± 3.3). However, psychologically when playing Wii Fit, participants' positive well-being decreased significantly (p = 0.018) from preexercise to postexercise when compared with exercising on the treadmill. College students have the potential to surpass exercise intensities achieved when performing a conventional standard for moderate-intensity exercise when playing Nintendo Wii Fit “Free Run” with a self-selected intensity. We concluded that Nintendo Wii Fit “Free Run” may act as an alternative to traditional moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in fulfilling the American College of Sports Medicine requirements for physical activity.

© 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association

More info click here

Wednesday, 4 April 2012

Clinical Use of Nintendo Wii(TM) Bowling Simulation to Decrease Fall Risk in an Elderly Resident of a Nursing Home: A Case Report

Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy: 2009 - Volume 32 - Issue 4 - p 174–180 Case Report

 Authors: Clark, Robert PT, ; Kraemer, Theresa PT, PhD,

+/- Click for more/less


Purpose:: Of the estimated 1.7 million residents of nursing homes in the United States, approximately half fall annually; and 11% of these sustain injury. This is twice the rate for persons dwelling in the community. By addressing fall risk, physical therapists have an opportunity to reduce falls which are the leading cause of injury deaths, as well as the most common cause of nonfatal injuries for older adults in the United States. This case report examines the effect of a novel interactive video game intervention to address balance dysfunction in an elderly resident of a nursing home who was at risk for falls.

Case Description:: The patient is an 89‐year‐old resident diagnosed with an unspecified balance disorder and a history of multiple falls. Self reports of gait abnormalities, scores on several clinical measures, and her fall history classified her as having substantial risk for future falls.

Intervention:: A nontraditional approach to balance training, employing the Nintendo Wii bowling simulation, was used as intervention for this patient's balance disorder.

Outcomes:: After 6 one‐hour treatment sessions, the patient's Berg Balance Score improved from 48 to 53. On the Dynamic Gait Index, the patient improved her score from 19 to 21. The patient's Timed Up and Go Test improved from 14.9 to 10.5 seconds, all suggesting a reduced risk of falling. The patient's ABC Score improved from 88 to 90%.

Conclusion:: Physical therapy intervention, using the Nintendo Wii bowling simulation, may have decreased fall risk for this individual.

Click here for more info