Monday, 31 October 2011

Use of Nintendo(R) Wii(TM) During Postburn Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study

Journal of Burn Care & Research:
POST COPYEDIT, 5 October 2011
2011 Clinical Research Award: PDF Only

Yohannan, Sam K. PT, MS; Tufaro, Patricia OTR/L; Hunter, Hope PT; Orleman, Lauren SPT; Palmatier, Sara SPT; Sang, Canace SPT; Gorga, Delia I. PhD, OTR/L; Yurt, Roger W. MD, FACS

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The purpose of this study was to demonstrate feasibility and measure outcomes on pain, anxiety, active range of motion (AROM), function, enjoyment, and presence (immersion into a virtual environment) with the adjunctive use of Nintendo(R) Wii(TM) (Nintendo of America Inc., Redmond, WA) during acute postburn rehabilitation. Participants were alternated and stratified based on the location of burn into Wii or control treatment groups. Joints of interest with limited AROM were the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle. All participants received three consecutive sessions of passive range of motion and predetermined joint-specific exercises. This was followed by either designated Wii games or therapist-chosen interventions (control). The outcomes were compared between groups using t-tests (P < .05) and Cohen's d statistic. Data from 23 participants aged 20 to 78 years were analyzed. The difference in mean slopes suggested that the Wii group experienced less pain (x = -0.97, P = .07) than the control group over time. Overall, trends with anxiety (x = -0.11, P = .77), AROM (x = 0.55, P = .81), function (x = -0.38, P = .43), and enjoyment (x = 0.09, P = .73) seemed to improve at a faster rate in the Wii group. Presence minimally changed between successive treatment sessions for those in the Wii group. Although statistical significance was not reached in any category, feasibility was supported, and the overall pattern for outcomes was positive for the Wii group, the most favorable being for pain reduction. Future research with larger sample sizes is warranted to explore best practice with video game technology throughout the continuum of burn rehabilitation with appropriate prescriptions.

 (C) 2011 The American Burn Association

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Sunday, 30 October 2011

The Utility of a Video Game System in Rehabilitation of Burn and Nonburn Patients: A Survey Among Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy Practitioners

Journal of Burn Care & Research:
September/October 2010 - Volume 31 - Issue 5 - pp 768-775

Fung, Vera BSc, MSc PT; So, Ken MSc OT; Park, Esther MSc PT; Ho, Aileen BSc PT; Shaffer, Jennifer BSc PT; Chan, Elaine MSc OT; Gomez, Manuel MD, MSc

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The objective of this study was to investigate perceptions of occupational therapists and physiotherapists on the use of Nintendo Wii™ (Nintendo of America Inc., Redmond, WA) in rehabilitation. Occupational therapists and physiotherapists in a rehabilitation hospital trialed four Wii games that addressed physical movement, balance, coordination, and cognitive performance. Then, they completed an opinion survey on the utility of Wii in rehabilitation. The results were compared between burn care therapists (BTs) and nonburn care therapists, using χ2 with a P < .05 considered significant. The participation rate was 79% (63/80), and they agreed that Wii was easy to set up (71%), operate (68%), and safe to use (76%). Participants agreed that Wii would be beneficial in outpatient (76%) and inpatient (65%) settings and that it could improve treatment compliance (73%). Participants recommended 15 to 30-minute Wii intervention (59%) daily (81%) and twice per week (43%). Participants believed that neurologic (71%), trauma (68%), burn (59%), and musculoskeletal (49%) patients would benefit from Wii intervention but not cardiac (43%) or organ transplant patients (18%). Participants believed that outcomes using Wii could be measured reliably (49%), and skills learned while playing could be transferable to daily function (60%). The significant differences between BTs and nonburn care therapists' perceptions are that BT-treated younger patients (21–40 years vs >60 years, P < .05) and BT favored the therapeutic benefit of Wii in rehabilitation (93% vs 58%, P = .02), specifically in burn rehabilitation (85% vs 39%, P = .001). Occupational therapists and physiotherapists favored the use of Wii in rehabilitation as an adjunct to traditional therapy because it is therapeutic, engaging, and may increase patient participation in rehabilitation.

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Saturday, 29 October 2011

Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation - Review

Copyright © 2011 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Kate E Laver, Stacey George, Susie Thomas, Judith E Deutsch, Maria Crotty

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Virtual reality and interactive video gaming have emerged as new treatment approaches in stroke rehabilitation. In particular, commercial gaming consoles are being rapidly adopted in clinical settings; however, there is currently little information about their effectiveness.

To evaluate the effects of virtual reality and interactive video gaming on upper limb, lower limb and global motor function after stroke.

Search strategy
We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (March 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2010), EMBASE (1980 to March 2010) and seven additional databases. We also searched trials registries, conference proceedings, reference lists and contacted key researchers in the area and virtual reality equipment manufacturers.

Selection criteria
Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of virtual reality ('an advanced form of human-computer interface that allows the user to 'interact' with and become 'immersed' in a computer-generated environment in a naturalistic fashion') in adults after stroke. The primary outcomes of interest were: upper limb function and activity, gait and balance function and activity and global motor function.

Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently selected trials based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements when required. The authors contacted all investigators to obtain missing information.

Main results
We included 19 trials which involved 565 participants. Study sample sizes were generally small and interventions and outcome measures varied, limiting the ability to which studies could be compared. Intervention approaches in the included studies were predominantly designed to improve motor function rather than cognitive function or activity performance. The majority of participants were relatively young and more than one year post stroke. Primary outcomes: results were statistically significant for arm function (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.53, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.25 to 0.81 based on seven studies with 205 participants). There were no statistically significant effects for grip strength or gait speed. We were unable to determine the effect on global motor function due to insufficient numbers of comparable studies. Secondary outcomes: results were statistically significant for activities of daily living (ADL) outcome (SMD 0.81, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.22 based on three studies with 101 participants); however, we were unable to pool results for cognitive function, participation restriction and quality of life or imaging studies. There were few adverse events reported across studies and those reported were relatively mild. Studies that reported on eligibility rates showed that only 34% (standard deviation (SD) 26, range 17 to 80) of participants screened were recruited.

Authors' conclusions
We found limited evidence that the use of virtual reality and interactive video gaming may be beneficial in improving arm function and ADL function when compared with the same dose of conventional therapy. There was insufficient evidence to reach conclusions about the effect of virtual reality and interactive video gaming on grip strength or gait speed. It is unclear at present which characteristics of virtual reality are most important and it is unknown whether effects are sustained in the longer term. Furthermore, there are currently very few studies evaluating the use of commercial gaming consoles (such as the Nintendo Wii).

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Friday, 28 October 2011

Respiration Tracking Using the Wii Remote Game Controller

Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Volume 169, 2011

Edited by Anne Moen, Stig Kjær Andersen, Jos Aarts, Petter Hurlen

Authors: J. Guirao Aguilar, J.G. Bellika, L. Fernandez Luque, V. Traver Salcedo

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Respiration exercises are an important part in the pulmonary rehabilitation of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) patients. Furthermore, previous research has demonstrated that showing respiration pattern helps the patients to improve their breathing skills. We have developed a low cost and non-invasive prototype based on the Wii remote game controller infrared camera to provide BPM (breaths per minute) measurement as feedback. It can also be a comfortable solution without wires, batteries or any kind of electronics but just wearing passive markers. The lab evaluation with 7 healthy individuals showed that this approach is feasible when users are resting of their exercise. The BPM monitored during the tests presented less than 15% of maximum error and the RMSE (root mean square error) was lower than 6% in all the tests. Further research is needed to evaluate and adapt the system for COPD patients. In addition, more work is needed to develop applications that can be built to motivate and guide the users.

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Enabling people with developmental disabilities to actively perform designated physical activities with Nintendos Wii Balance Boards

Research in Developmental Disabilities
Volume 32, Issue 6, November-December 2011, Pages 2780-2784

Ching-Hsiang Shiha, Chiao-Chen Chunga, Ching-Tien Shihb, Ling-Che Chena

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Abstract The latest researches have adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance standing location detector. This study extended Wii Balance Board functionality to assess whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform designated physical activities according to simple instructions by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using Nintendo Wii Balance Boards. This study was carried out according to an A–B–A–B design. Data showed that both participants significantly increased their target response (performing a designated physical activity) by activating the control system to produce their preferred environmental stimulation during the intervention phases.

Highlights ► Commercial high-technology products can be modified in their default functions to be used as high performance assistive devices. ► The Nintendo Wii Balance Board can be used as a high performance standing location detector. ► Two people with developmental disabilities can control environmental stimulation through the Wii Balance Board by performing a designated physical activity.

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Thursday, 27 October 2011

Assisting people with multiple disabilities by actively keeping the head in an upright position with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller through the control of an environmental stimulation

Research in Developmental Disabilities Volume 32, Issue 5, 
September-October 2011, Pages 2005-2010

Ching-Hsiang Shih, Chia-Ju Shih and Ching-Tien Shih

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The latest researches have adopted software technology by applying the Nintendo Wii Remote Controller to the correction of hyperactive limb behavior. This study extended Wii Remote Controller functionality for improper head position (posture) correction (i.e. actively adjusting abnormal head posture) to assess whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to actively keep the upright head position by controlling their favorite stimulation using a Wii Remote Controller with a newly developed active head position correcting program (AHPCP). The study was performed according to an ABAB design, in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Results showed that both participants significantly increased their time duration of maintaining upright head position (TDMUHP) to obtain the desired environmental stimulation during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings were discussed.
Commercial high-technology products can be used as high-performance assistive devices. The Nintendo Wii Remote Controller can be used as a head posture detector. Two people with multiple disabilities can actively keep the upright head position through controlling their favorite stimuli by using a Wii Remote Controller.

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Wednesday, 26 October 2011

A Comparison of the Energy Cost of 6 Forms of Exergaming

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011;165(7):597-602.

Bruce W. Bailey, PhD; Kyle McInnis, ScD

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To determine the relative effect of interactive digital exercise that features player movement (ie, exergames) on energy expenditure among children of various body mass indexes (BMIs; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared).

Design Comparison study.
Setting GoKids Boston, a youth fitness research and training center located at University of Massachusetts, Boston.

Thirty-nine boys and girls (mean [SD] age, 11.5 [2.0] years) recruited from local schools and after-school programs.

Main Exposure
Six forms of exergaming as well as treadmill walking.

Main Outcome Measures 
In addition to treadmill walking at 3 miles per hour (to convert miles to kilometers, multiply by 1.6), energy expenditure of the following exergames were examined: Dance Dance Revolution, LightSpace (Bug Invasion), Nintendo Wii (Boxing), Cybex Trazer (Goalie Wars), Sportwall, and Xavix (J-Mat). Energy expenditure was measured using the CosMed K4B2 portable metabolic cart.

All forms of interactive gaming evaluated in our study increased energy expenditure above rest, with no between-group differences among normal (BMI < 85th percentile) and "at-risk" or overweight (BMI 85th percentile) children (P .05). Walking at 3 miles per hour resulted in a mean (SD) metabolic equivalent task value of 4.9 (0.7), whereas the intensity of exergaming resulted in mean (SD) metabolic equivalent task values of 4.2 (1.6) for Wii, 5.4 (1.8) for Dance Dance Revolution, 6.4 (1.6) for LightSpace, 7.0 (1.8) for Xavix, 5.9 (1.5) for Cybex Trazer, and 7.1 (1.7) for Sportwall. Enjoyment of the games was generally high but was highest for children with BMIs in the highest percentiles.

All games used in our study elevated energy expenditure to moderate or vigorous intensity. Exergaming has the potential to increase physical activity and have a favorable influence on energy balance, and may be a viable alternative to traditional fitness activities for children of various BMI levels.

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Tuesday, 25 October 2011

Changes in physical activity and fitness after 3 months of home Wii Fit(TM) use

Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research:
25(11): 3191-3197, 
11 October 2011

Owens, SG, Garner III, JC, Loftin, JM, van Blerk, N, and Ermin, K.
Original Article: PDF Only

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The purpose of this study was to examine changes in physical activity and fitness variables in members of 8 volunteer families after 3 months of home use of the Wii Fit(TM) interactive video game. Pre and postintervention measurements were obtained from 21 subjects relative to physical activity (5 days of accelerometry), aerobic fitness (graded treadmill test), muscular fitness (push-ups), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), balance (composite equilibrium score), and body composition (body mass index and % body fat). Use characteristics of the Wii Fit(TM) device were also determined. A series of 2 (age group) x 2 (time) repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess changes over time and between adults and children. Three months of home Wii Fit(TM) use revealed no significant age group x time interactions or main effects of group or time for daily physical activity, muscular fitness, flexibility, balance, or body composition. An age group x time interaction (p = 0.04) was observed in peak [latin capital V with dot above]O2 (ml[middle dot]kg-1[middle dot]min-1) with children displaying a significant (p = 0.03) increase after 3 months of Wii Fit(TM) use, whereas adults showed no significant (p = 0.50) change. Daily Wii Fit(TM) use per household declined by 82% (p < 0.01) from 21.5 +/- 9.0 min[middle dot]d-1 during the first 6 weeks to 3.9 +/- 4.0 min[middle dot]d-1 during the second 6 weeks. Most measures of health-related fitness in this exploratory study remained unchanged after 3 months of home use of the popular Wii Fit(TM) whole-body movement interactive video game. Modest daily Wii Fit(TM) use may have provided insufficient stimulus for fitness changes. 

 (C) 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association 

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Monday, 24 October 2011

Is the Nintendo Wii Fit really acceptable to older people?: A discrete choice experiment

BMC Geriatrics 2011, 11:64

Kate Laver , Julie Ratcliffe , Stacey George , Leonie Burgess and Maria Crotty
Published: 20 October 2011

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Abstract (provisional)
Background Interactive video games such as the Nintendo Wii Fit are increasingly used as a therapeutic tool in health and aged care settings however, their acceptability to older people is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of the Nintendo Wii Fit as a therapy tool for hospitalised older people using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) before and after exposure to the intervention.

Methods A DCE was administered to 21 participants in an interview style format prior to, and following several sessions of using the Wii Fit in physiotherapy. The physiotherapist prescribed the Wii Fit activities, supervised and supported the patient during the therapy sessions. Attributes included in the DCE were: mode of therapy (traditional or using the Wii Fit), amount of therapy, cost of therapy program and percentage of recovery made. Data was analysed using conditional (fixed-effects) logistic regression.

Results Prior to commencing the therapy program participants were most concerned about therapy time (avoiding programs that were too intensive), and the amount of recovery they would make. Following the therapy program, participants were more concerned with the mode of therapy and preferred traditional therapy programs over programs using the Wii Fit.

Conclusions The usefulness of the Wii Fit as a therapy tool with hospitalised older people is limited not only by the small proportion of older people who are able to use it, but by older people's preferences for traditional approaches to therapy. Mainstream media portrayals of the popularity of the Wii Fit with older people may not reflect the true acceptability in the older hospitalised population.

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